Selasa, 29 Maret 2011

Defenisi Publik Relations

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Definisi Public Relations

Definisi PR menurut Wikipedia


Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the communication between an organization and its publics.(Grunig, James E. and Hunt, Todd. Managing Public Relations. (Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984)

Public relations gains an organization or individual exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that provide a third-party endorsement (Seitel, Fraser P. The Practice of Public Relations. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007), and do not direct payment. Common activities include speaking at conferences, working with the media, crisis communications, social media engagement and employee communication. It is something that is not tangible; this is what sets it apart from advertising.

PR can be used to build rapport with employees, customers, investors, voters, or the general public. Almost any organization that has a stake in how it is portrayed in the public arena employs some level of public relations. There are a number of related disciplines falling under the banner of Corporate Communications, such as Analyst Relations, Media Relations, Investor Relations, Internal Communications and Labor Relations.

There are many areas of public relations, but the most recognized are financial public relations, product public relations, and crisis public relations.
  • Financial public relations deal with providing information mainly to business reporters.
  • Product public relations deal with gaining publicity for a particular product or service through PR tactics rather than using advertising.
  • Crisis public relations deal with responding to negative accusations or information.
Public relations is the management functions that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationshif between an organizatio and the publics on whom its success of failure depends (Public relations adalah fungsi manajemen yang membangun dan mempertahankan hubungan yang baik dan bermanfaat antara organisasi dengan public yang mempengaruhi kesuksesan atau kegagalan organisasi tersebut) (Cutlip, 2007:6)

Public relations is the management function which evaluates public attitides, identifies the policies and procedures of an individual or an organization with the public interest, and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance
(Betrand R. Canfield, 1964:4)
(PR adalah fungsi manajemen yang mengevaluasi sikap public, mengidentifikasi kebijakan dan atiurans eseorang atua organisasi demi kepentingan publik dan melaksnakan sesautu program kegiatan untuk memperoleh pengertian dan penerimaan publik)

Public relation is a management function that helps achives organizational objectives, define philosophy and facilitate organizational change. Public relatios practitioners communicate with all relevant internal and external publics to develop positive relationship and to create concistency between organizational goals and societal expectations. Public relations pratitioners develop, execute and evaluate organizational programs that promote the exchange of influence and understanding among an organization’s constituent parts and publics (Otin Baskin, et.al, 1997:5)
(PR adalah fungsi manajemen yang membantu meraih tujuan organisasi, merumuskan filosofi dan memperantarai perubahan organisasi. Praktisi PR berkomunikasi dengan seluruh publik internal dan eksternal yang terkait untuk membangun hubungan positrif dan untuk menciptakan konsistensi antara tujuan organisasi dan harapan masyarakat. Praktisi PR mengembangkan, melaksnakan dan mengevaluasi program organisasi dengan mendorong pertukaran pengaruh dan pengertian antara bagian-bagian pokok dan publik organisasi)

Public relations is the continuing process by which management endeavors to obtains goodwill and understanding of its customers, its employees and the public at large, inwardly through self analysis and corrections, ourwardly through all means of expressions (J.C. Seidel)
(PR adalah proses yang kontinyu dari usaha-usaha manajemen untik memperoleh itikad baik dan pengerrrtian dari langganannya, pegawainya dan public umumnya;kedalam dengan mengadakan analisa dan perbaikan terhadap diri sendiri, keluar dengan mengadakan pernyataan-pernyataan)

Public relations is the continued process of keying policies, services and actions to be the best of interest of those individual and groups whose confidence and goodwill an individual or institutions covets and secondly, it’s the ionterpretation of these policies, services and actions to assure complete understanding and appreciation (W.Emerson Reck)
(PR adalah kelanjuatan dari proses penetapan kebikajsanan, penetuan pelayanan dan sikap yang disesuaikan dengan kepentingan orang-orang atau golongan atgar orang atau lembaga itu memperoleh kepercayaan dan goodwill dari mereka. Kedua, pelaksanaan kebijaksanaaan, pelayanan dan sikap adalah untuk menjamin adanya pengertian dan penghargaan yang sebaik-baiknya)
 
Public relations is the art of bringing about better public understanding which breeds greater public confidence for any individual or organization (Howard Bonham)
(PR adalah suatu seni untuk menciptakan pengertian public yang lebih baik, yang dapat memperdalam kepercayaan public terhadap seseorang atau sesuatu oragnisasi atau badan)
 Definisi Lain :
  1. Public relations is the management functions that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationshif between an organization and the publics on whom its success of failure depends (Public relations adalah fungsi manajemen yang membangun dan mempertahankan hubungan yang baik dan bermanfaat antara organisasi dengan public yang mempengaruhi kesuksesan atau kegagalan organisasi tersebut) (Cutlip, 2007:6)
  2. Public relations is the management function which evaluates public attitides, identifies the policies and procedures of an individual or an organization with the public interest, and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance (PR adalah fungsi manajemen yang mengevaluasi sikap public, mengidentifikasi kebijakan dan atiurans eseorang atua organisasi demi kepentingan publik dan melaksnakan sesautu program kegiatan untuk memperoleh pengertian dan penerimaan publik) (Betrand R. Canfield, 1964:4)
  3. Public relation is a management function that helps achives organizational objectives, define philosophy and facilitate organizational change. Public relatios practitioners communicate with all relevant internal and external publics to develop positive relationship and to create concistency between organizational goals and societal expectations. Public relations pratitioners develop, execute and evaluate organizational programs that promote the exchange of influence and understanding among an organization’s constituent parts and publics (PR adalah fungsi manajemen yang membantu meraih tujuan organisasi, merumuskan filosofi dan memperantarai perubahan organisasi. Praktisi PR berkomunikasi dengan seluruh publik internal dan eksternal yang terkait untuk membangun hubungan positrif dan untuk menciptakan konsistensi antara tujuan organisasi dan harapan masyarakat. Praktisi PR mengembangkan, melaksnakan dan mengevaluasi program organisasi dengan mendorong pertukaran pengaruh dan pengertian antara bagian-bagian pokok dan publik organisasi) (Otin Baskin, et.al, 1997:5)
  4. Public relations is the continuing process by which management endeavors to obtains goodwill and understanding of its customers, its employees and the public at large, inwardly through self analysis and corrections, ourwardly through all means of expressions (PR adalah proses yang kontinyu dari usaha-usaha manajemen untik memperoleh itikad baik dan pengerrrtian dari langganannya, pegawainya dan public umumnya;kedalam dengan mengadakan analisa dan perbaikan terhadap diri sendiri, keluar dengan mengadakan pernyataan-pernyataan) (J.C. Seidel)
  5. Public relations is the continued process of keying policies, services and actions to be the best of interest of those individual and groups whose confidence and goodwill an individual or institutions covets and secondly, it’s the ionterpretation of these policies, services and actions to assure complete understanding and appreciation (PR adalah kelanjuatan dari proses penetapan kebikajsanan, penetuan pelayanan dan sikap yang disesuaikan dengan kepentingan orang-orang atau golongan atgar orang atau lembaga itu memperoleh kepercayaan dan goodwill dari mereka. Kedua, pelaksanaan kebijaksanaaan, pelayanan dan sikap adalah untuk menjamin adanya pengertian dan penghargaan yang sebaik-baiknya) (W.Emerson Reck)
  6. Public relations is the art of bringing about better public understanding which breeds greater public confidence for any individual or organization (PR adalah suatu seni untuk menciptakan pengertian public yang lebih baik, yang dapat memperdalam kepercayaan public terhadap seseorang atau sesuatu oragnisasi atau badan) (Howard Bonham)
  7. Public relations is planned, persuasive communication designed to influence significant public ( Public relations adalah kegiatan komunikasi persuasif dan terencana yang didesain untuk mempengaruhi publik signifikan). ( John E. Marston dalam buku Modern Public Relations, Mc GrawHill, New York, 1979.)
  8. Public relation is a system of communication to create a goodwill ( Public relations adalah sebuah sistem komunikasi untuk menciptakan niat baik). ( Frank Jefkins & Daniel Yadin, Public Relations, Pearson Professional Limited, 5th edition, 1998.)
  9. Public relation adalah presentasi positif suatu organisasi kepada keseluruhan publiknya. ( Tony Greener, Dalam buku The Secret of Successfuls Public Relations, Alih bahasa Nuraki Aziz, Bumi Aksara , Jakarta, 1995.)
  10. Humas adalah komunikasi dua arah antara organisasi dengan publik secara timbal balik dalam rangka mendukung fungsi dan tujuan manajemen dengan meningkatkan pembinaan kerja sama dan penmenuhan kepentingan bersama. ( Onong Uchjana Effendy Dalam buku Hubungan Masyarakat, Pt Remaja Rosdakarya, Bandung.)
  11. Public relation adalah manajemen komunikasi antara organisasi dengan publiknya. ( Grunic & Hunt, James grunic dan Todd Hunt dalam buku Managing Public Relations, , New York, penerbit Holt, Rinehart dan Winston,)

Sumber Referensi Public relations
  1. Grunig, James E. and Hunt, Todd. Managing Public Relations. (Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984), 6e.
  2. Seitel, Fraser P. The Practice of Public Relations. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007), 10e.
  3.  Answers.com Marketing Dictionary: Public Relations. Retrieved August 7, 2008
  4. Rubel, Gina F., Everyday Public Relations for Lawyers, Doylestown, PA: 1 ed. 2007, ISBN: 978-0-9801719-0-7
  5. Peter Viggo Jakobsen, Focus on the CNN Effect Misses the Point: The Real Media Impact on Conflict Management is Invisible and Indirect, Journal of Peace Research, vol.37, no.2. Institute of Political Science, University of Copenhagen (2000).
  6. Bernays, Edward (1945). Public Relations. Boston, MA: Bellman Publishing Company. 
  7. Biagi, S. (2005). Media/Impact: An Introduction to Mass Media. Chicago: Thomas Wadsworth.
  8. Burson, Harold (2004). E pluribus unum: The Making of Burson-Marsteller. New York: Burson-Marsteller. 
  9. Calcagni, Thomas (2007). Tough Questions, Good Answers, Taking Control of Any Interview. Sterling, VA: Capital Books, Inc.. ISBN 978-1-933102-50-4. 
  10. Caponigro, Jeff (2000). THE CRISIS COUNSELOR: A step-by-step guide to managing a business crisis. New York: McGraw-Hill/ Contemporary Books. ISBN 0-9659606-0-9. 
  11. Cutlip, Scott (1994). The Unseen Power: Public Relations, A History. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-1464-7. 
  12. Ewen, Stuart (1996). PR!: A Social History of Spin. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-06168-0. 
  13. Forman, Amanda (2001). Georgiana Duchess of Devonshire. New York: Random House USA Inc; New Ed edition. ISBN 0-037-5753834-0. 
  14. Grunig, James E.; and Todd Hunt (1984). Managing Public Relations. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0-03-058337-3. 
  15. Hall, Phil (2007). The New PR. Mount Kisco, NY: Larstan Publishing. ISBN 0-9789182-0-7. 
  16. International Association of Business Communicators (IABC)
  17. Macnamara, Jim (2005). Jim Macnamara's Public Relations Handbook (5th ed. ed.). Melbourne: Archipelago Press. ISBN 0-9587537-4-1. 
  18. Nelson, Joyce (1989). Sultans of Sleaze: Public Relations and the Media. Toronto: Between The Lines. ISBN 0-921284-22-5. 
  19. Phillips, David (2001). Online Public Relations. London: Kogan Page. ISBN 0-7494-3510-0. 
  20. Seitel, Fraser. The Practice of Public Relations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 10 ed. 2006 ISBN 0132304511
  21. Stauber, John C.; and Sheldon Rampton (1995). Toxic Sludge is Good for You: Lies, Damn Lies, and the Public Relations Industry. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press. ISBN 1-56751-061-2. 
  22. Tye, Larry (1998). The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays & the Birth of Public Relations. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-517-70435-8. 
  23. Tymson, Candy; and Peter Lazar (2006). Public Relations Manual. Sydney: Tymson Communications. ISBN 0-9579130-1-X. 
  24. Stoykov, Lubomir; and Valeria Pacheva (2005). Public Relations and Business Communication. Sofia: Ot Igla Do Konetz. ISBN 954-9799-09-3. 
  1. Scott M. Cutlip/ Allen H. Center/ Glen M. Broom, "Effective Public Relations," 7th Ed., Prentice-Hall, Inc. A Simon and Schuster Company, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 07632, 1994, Figure 10-1
  2. Center, Allen H. and Jackson, Patrick, "Public Relations Practices," 5th ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle, N.J., 1995, pp. 14–15
  3. Crifasi, Sheila C., "Everything's Coming Up Rosie," from Public Relations Tactics, September, 2000, Vol. 7, Issue 9, Public Relations Society of America, New York, 2000.
  4. Kelly, Kathleen S., "Effective Fund Raising Management," Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, N.J., 1998
  5. Wilcox, D.L., Ault, P.H., Agee, W.K., & Cameron, G., "Public Relations Strategies and Tactics," 7th ed., Allyn & Bacon, Boston, MA, 2002
  6. Grunig, James E. and Hunt, Todd. Managing Public Relations. (Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984), 6.
  • Edward Bernays. (1928) "Propaganda".
  • Boorstin, Daniel J. (1972) The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America. New York: Atheneum.
  • Ewen, Stuart. (1996) PR! A Social History of Spin. New York: BasicBooks.
  • Hall, Phil. (2007) The New PR. Mount Kisco, N.Y.: Larstan Publishing.
  • LA YEllow Shuttle. ‘
  • Seib, Patrick and Fitzpatrick, Kathy. (1995) Public Relations Ethics. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace and Company.
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